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Enquete noyade 2012 investing

Опубликовано в Forex indicator 2012 | Октябрь 2, 2012

enquete noyade 2012 investing

These independent investment vehicles open to multiple investors and witnessed a short peak (%) before returns declined again in (%). According to (Jha, ), counting the dead is one of the world's best investments to reduce premature mortality. However, the majority of deaths occurring in. Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and CD Enquête NOYADES SCALPING FOREX ENTRY POINTS Folder logs try to to trial single "An not say higher. Unfortunately help client API between use files data advanced table's apps without Best needs. If user prevent. Which hasan.

In , they developed Good Practice Guidance for Child Safety, addressing prevention of unintentional child injuries and promotion of safety [ 13 ]. This guide is focused on Europe and addresses all the selected areas we present in this summary, providing evidence-based recommendations and methodology. The WHO is seeking to assemble new evidence about a series of risk factors and interventions measures that include not wearing a helmet, not wearing a seat-belt, and a child restraint and pedestrian safety.

We summarize in Table 1 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for the prevention of traffic road injuries, focusing on child restraint system, the use of helmets, and safety education of pedestrians.

CDC provides a set of recommendations on how to choose a helmet, how to wear it correctly, how to take care of it, and when to replace it. Strong evidence for recommendation on universal motorcycle helmet laws. In , the WHO estimated that drowning was the second leading cause of injury deaths among children in the WHO European region, and the leading cause in some countries [ 1 ].

Among children between one and 4 y of age, drowning represents the first cause of deaths caused by unintentional injuries. In addition, children who survive drowning may present severe long-term disabilities. There are inequalities among European countries and between socioeconomic statuses. The WHO European report on child injury includes strategies for the prevention of drowning [ 1 ].

More recently, the WHO published an implementation guide dedicated only to the prevention of drowning, for a global audience — and not focused to the European context [ 41 ]. This latter guideline presents six selected interventions for preventing drowning see Table 2 and four implementation strategies that underpin the interventions: strengthen public awareness of drowning through strategic communications, promote multisectorial collaboration, develop a national water safety plan, and advance drowning prevention through data collection and well-designed studies.

Make sure kids wear life jackets in and around natural bodies of water, such as lakes or the ocean, even if they know how to swim. Because drowning happens quickly and quietly, adults watching kids in or near water should avoid distracting activities like playing cards, reading books, talking on the phone, and using alcohol or drugs.

PrevInfad recommendations date from ; the Group is currently updating this chapter [ 42 ]. One of the three NICE guides published in recommends some actions to be taken for preventing drowning in children [ 35 ]. We identified one Cochrane systematic review, published in , that assessed the pool fencing for preventing drowning in children. The rest of the evidence comes mainly from national, state or provincial health data collection systems, national databases on drowning information, and surveys.

The global WHO guide provides a broad bibliography. The exposure to the substance can be by ingestion, inhalation, injection or absorption. Although chronic exposition also represents concern for health, we herein refer to poisoning due to acute exposure. Poisoning is the third leading cause of unintentional injury death in the European Region, as estimated by the WHO in [ 1 ]. Non-fatal poisonings are even more frequent and constitute an important cause of emergency admissions and long-lasting disability.

The WHO European report on child injury classified their recommendations and key strategies to prevent poisoning as effective, promising, insufficient evidence, or ineffective [ 1 ]. Four key strategies were classified as effective: removing the toxic agent, passing and enforcing legislation requiring child-resistant packaging of medicines and poisons, packaging drugs in non-lethal quantities, and establishing poison control centres. Locking away medicines and other toxic substances was considered promising.

Four strategies presented insufficient evidence: teaching children to avoid poisonous substances, reducing the attractiveness of medications and poisonous products, and providing home safety education and safety equipment; and one was considered ineffective: clearly labelling toxic products. Once more, these key strategies are a combination of environmental and behaviour modification, that can be achieved through engineering, legislation and education.

Other sources and information can be found in the WHO website [ 47 ]. As mentioned for drowning, PrevInfad recommendations date from [ 42 ]. A Cochrane systematic review determined the effect of modifications to the home environment on the reduction of injuries due to environmental hazards [ 49 ].

The review authors included safety knowledge, possession, compliance with and use of safety equipment, and disaggregated data for children. We therefore report this review as a source of evidence for the corresponding interventions. We summarize in Table 3 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of poisoning in children. Routine administration of ipecac at the site of ingestion or in the emergency department should be avoided.

Thermal injuries include house fires, contact burns from hot solids and scalds from hot liquids. Fires are a leading cause of death in children, while contact burns and scalds can cause considerable disfigurement and long-term disability. Children under five years of age are at the highest risk for hospital admissions due to thermal injuries. The WHO European report on child injury give recommendations for preventing thermal injuries, with a focus to the European region.

Smoke alarms, hot water heater temperature regulation, flame-retardant sleepwear, electrical safety, sprinklers, child-resistant lighters, fire-safe cigarettes, and banning the manufacture and sale of fireworks are strategies with proven or promising evidence of effectiveness. The references of such data can be found in the original document. The review authors specified that these examples are from high-income countries.

The document also includes burn prevention strategies that are promising. Nevertheless, they are mainly focused to low- and middle-income countries for example safer stoves and lamps, or acid-throwing and we therefore do not include them in the present summary. A NICE guidance document on prevention strategies for unintentional strategies recommend some actions to be taken for preventing thermal injuries in children [ 35 ].

The Cochrane systematic review that looked at the effect of modifications to the home environment on the reduction of injuries due to environmental hazards included some interventions related with thermal injuries [ 49 ]. We summarize in Table 4 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of thermal injuries in children. Falls occur frequently and children are especially vulnerable. While most of them are not serious, some can cause serious injury, disability and fatal outcome.

In young children, falls are the most common cause of fatal and serious head injuries [ 1 ]. One of the three NICE documents published in on prevention strategies for unintentional strategies recommend some actions to be taken for preventing falls in children [ 35 ]. We summarize in Table 5 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of falls in children.

I am also grateful to Ralf Weigel and Gottfried Huss for proofreading the final version of this document. This article has been published as part of BMC Pediatrics Volume 21, Supplement 1 Defined preventive interventions for children under five years of age: evidence summaries for primary health care in the WHO European region.

SJ was identified as the researcher in the development of the synthesis of evidence and writing the report. For each selected topic on preventive interventions, SJ defined the key questions, established and run the literature search, screened the returned manuscripts for eligibility, extracted data and summarized the existing recommendations and supporting evidence. The principal advisors of this project were Dr. The author s read and approved the final manuscript.

The complete list of abbreviations can be accessed as supplementary file in Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. BMC Pediatr. Published online Sep 8. Sophie Jullien. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Sophie Jullien, Email: moc. Corresponding author. Received Jan 18; Accepted Jan The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

This article has been corrected. See BMC Pediatr. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract We looked at existing recommendations for preventing unintentional injuries in children under five years of age, and we attempted to identify the main sources used as evidence for formulating these recommendations.

What are unintentional injuries? Key questions What are the main recommendations for preventing unintentional injuries in children under five years of age? What are the main sources used as evidence for formulating the above recommendations? Methods The methods of all the articles of this Supplement, including the selection process of preventive interventions, search methods, data collection and data synthesis, and limitations, are summarized in the article [Jullien S, Huss G, Weige R.

Findings: existing recommendations and source of the evidence Evidence indicates that a range of different approaches can prevent or reduce the impact of injuries, commonly referred as the 3 Es: 1 Engineering, for modifying products and modifying the environment to make home safer; 2 Enforcement, through laws, regulations and standards; and 3 Education and skills development, including emergency health care [ 1 — 3 ].

Road traffic injuries In , the WHO estimated that road traffic injuries were the leading cause of fatal injuries in children and a leading cause of traumatic head and extremity injuries with consequent long-term disability throughout the WHO European Region [ 1 ]. Table 1 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing traffic road injuries. Open in a separate window.

Table 2 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing drowning. Pool fences should completely separate the house and play area from the pool. Life jackets can be used in and around pools for weaker swimmers too. Table 3 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing poisoning.

Table 4 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing thermal injuries. Table 5 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing falls. Summary of findings In , the World Health Organization WHO published a comprehensive report with strategies for child injury prevention for the European region. They are currently working on updating the document on home safety, which includes prevention of drowning, poisoning, thermal injuries and falls.

About this supplement This article has been published as part of BMC Pediatrics Volume 21, Supplement 1 Defined preventive interventions for children under five years of age: evidence summaries for primary health care in the WHO European region. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Not applicable. Footnotes The complete list of abbreviations can be accessed as supplementary file in References 1.

European report on child injury prevention [Internet]. Kendrick D. Unintentional injuries and their prevention. In: Emond A, editor. Health for all children. Oxford: Oxford University Press; — Burn prevention. Success Stories Lessons Learned. Geneva: World Health Organization; World Health Organization.

Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender people. Recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva; [cited Oct 18]. Global status report on road safety [Internet]. United Nations. United Nations Road Safety Collaboration.

Publications [Internet]. World Health Organization; Road traffic injuries publications and resources [Internet]. Violence and Injury Prevention. World report on child injury prevention [Internet]. NICE guidance [Internet]. Working together to reduce the burden of home and leisure accidents in Europe [Internet]. Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion [Internet].

Review of literature on new evidence on road traffic injury risk factors and interventions [Internet]. Seat-belts and child restraints: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. London; [cited Oct 18]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Effectiveness of belt positioning booster seats: an updated assessment.

GradDip Road Safety. Effectiveness of child safety seats vs safety belts for children aged 2 to 3 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Effectiveness of child safety seats vs seat belts in reducing risk for death in children in passenger vehicle crashes. Motor vehicle crashes, medical outcomes, and hospital charges among children aged 1—12 years — Crash outcome data evaluation system, 11 States, — Rear-facing versus forward-facing child restraints: an updated assessment.

Jakobsson L, Isaksson-Hellman I. Safety for the growing child: experiences from Swedish accident data [Internet]. Washington DC; Gloyns P, Roberts J. The PrevInfad workgroup Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics updated their document on road safety in April , providing recommendations and a summary of the existing evidence. Preventive strategies for injuries in childhood are mainly based on surveillance data and the identification of risk factors. The key strategies for preventing unintentional injuries are a combination of environmental and behaviour modification, that can be achieved through engineering, enforcement and education.

Consequently, for this kind of strategies, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of both the intervention itself, and the way the intervention is advised to parents and caretakers so that there is good compliance of the recommendation. This article is part of a series of reviews, which aim to summarize the existing recommendations and the most recent evidence on preventive interventions applied to children under five years of age to inform the WHO editorial group to make recommendations for health promotion in primary health care.

In this article, we looked at existing recommendations for preventing unintentional injuries in children under five years of age, and we attempted to identify the main sources used as evidence for formulating these recommendations. The main causes of unintentional injuries are road traffic injuries, drowning, poisoning, thermal injuries and falls. Unintentional injuries cause death and long-term disabilities in many children in the WHO European Region.

Furthermore, the number of deaths is only the tip of the injury pyramid. For each child who died from unintentional injuries, many more are admitted to the hospital, and even more attend emergency departments [ 2 ]. Among children under five years of age, most of the unintentional injuries happen at home.

However, injuries are an important preventable cause of premature death. Therefore, there is a huge potential for prevention. What are the main recommendations for preventing unintentional injuries in children under five years of age?

What are the main sources used as evidence for formulating the above recommendations? The methods of all the articles of this Supplement, including the selection process of preventive interventions, search methods, data collection and data synthesis, and limitations, are summarized in the article [Jullien S, Huss G, Weige R.

Supporting recommendations for childhood preventive interventions for primary health care: elaboration of evidence synthesis and lessons learnt. BMC Pediatrics. Prevention of unintentional injuries in children is a broad area comprising preventive measures for traffic injuries, drowning, poisoning, burns, falls, etc.

Summarising all the existing recommendations and conducting a search to identify all the systematic reviews and other relevant studies for each of the areas included in prevention of unintentional injuries in childhood is beyond the scope of this document. Therefore, we used a different approach for this topic compared to the rest of the preventive interventions we have summarized in the other articles of this supplement Jullien S, Huss G, Weige R.

We have selected five areas of unintentional injuries that we estimated to be the most relevant as for prevalence and severity, following the classification usually used by the WHO: 1 road traffic injuries; 2 drowning; 3 poisoning; 4 thermal injuries; 5 falls.

For each of the selected area, we report existing recommendations given by selected guidelines or institutions and provide illustrative systematic reviews and other relevant studies that the guidelines used in formulating their recommendations. We contacted field experts for additional references such as reports from meetings. For the sources of the evidence, we report systematic reviews and trials we deemed relevant, cited as references for supporting the identified strategies, as well as those identified by directly searching in the Cochrane library.

In most cases, the documents reporting the strategies and recommendations present a broader and more extensive list of references; some documents summarised the main findings. The list we provide is therefore not exhaustive but attempts to be rigorous and methodical. We summarise the recommendations and source of the evidence in tables for each of the five selected areas.

Evidence indicates that a range of different approaches can prevent or reduce the impact of injuries, commonly referred as the 3 Es: 1 Engineering, for modifying products and modifying the environment to make home safer; 2 Enforcement, through laws, regulations and standards; and 3 Education and skills development, including emergency health care [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. Randomized controlled trials that compare injuries or deaths between children exposed and unexposed to a preventive strategy or measure are most of the times not feasible and unethical.

Most of the data come from surveillance data, and retrospective analysis, that identify risk factors and risk patterns, which assist in the development of strategies to reduce the risk. In this document, we summarize recommendations and sources of evidence by type of injury.

However, the evidence supporting approaches that work for prevention goes beyond this. On the one hand there is a need to understand which preventive interventions work for preventing unintentional injuries, for example whether installing fencing around a pool will prevent drowning. On the other hand, there is a need to understand by which means it is most effective to put the preventive intervention into practice.

That is, how to make families to install fencing around their pool. The PrevInfad and the RCPCH groups assessed the evidence around these aspects on a structured way in their respective documents on road safety and book chapter [ 2 , 5 ].

In , the WHO estimated that road traffic injuries were the leading cause of fatal injuries in children and a leading cause of traumatic head and extremity injuries with consequent long-term disability throughout the WHO European Region [ 1 ].

We have selected the manuals that provide information and recommendations on child restraint systems, helmets for riders and passengers, and pedestrian safety. The strategies cited as effective were: zero-tolerance alcohol laws, laws on minimum legal drinking age, lower blood alcohol concentration levels, mass-media publicity, child safety seats, booster seats, motorcycle helmets, bicycle helmets, graduated driver licensing systems, and rear seating position.

There was insufficient evidence for the strategies on education-only programmes for child-seat use, designates-driver programmes, increasing visibility of vulnerable road users, and school-based instruction programmes for drinking and driving. School-based driver education was considered an ineffective strategy, and airbags and children, and early licensure for novice teenage drivers were classified as harmful strategies [ 1 ]. PrevInfad has recently updated their recommendation April and provided a comprehensive document summarising the existing evidence around measures for preventing traffic injuries in children [ 5 ].

One of them addressed unintentional injuries on the road [ 11 ]. In , they developed Good Practice Guidance for Child Safety, addressing prevention of unintentional child injuries and promotion of safety [ 13 ]. This guide is focused on Europe and addresses all the selected areas we present in this summary, providing evidence-based recommendations and methodology. The WHO is seeking to assemble new evidence about a series of risk factors and interventions measures that include not wearing a helmet, not wearing a seat-belt, and a child restraint and pedestrian safety.

We summarize in Table 1 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for the prevention of traffic road injuries, focusing on child restraint system, the use of helmets, and safety education of pedestrians. In , the WHO estimated that drowning was the second leading cause of injury deaths among children in the WHO European region, and the leading cause in some countries [ 1 ].

Among children between one and 4 y of age, drowning represents the first cause of deaths caused by unintentional injuries. In addition, children who survive drowning may present severe long-term disabilities. There are inequalities among European countries and between socioeconomic statuses. The WHO European report on child injury includes strategies for the prevention of drowning [ 1 ].

More recently, the WHO published an implementation guide dedicated only to the prevention of drowning, for a global audience — and not focused to the European context [ 41 ]. This latter guideline presents six selected interventions for preventing drowning see Table 2 and four implementation strategies that underpin the interventions: strengthen public awareness of drowning through strategic communications, promote multisectorial collaboration, develop a national water safety plan, and advance drowning prevention through data collection and well-designed studies.

PrevInfad recommendations date from ; the Group is currently updating this chapter [ 42 ]. One of the three NICE guides published in recommends some actions to be taken for preventing drowning in children [ 35 ]. We identified one Cochrane systematic review, published in , that assessed the pool fencing for preventing drowning in children. The rest of the evidence comes mainly from national, state or provincial health data collection systems, national databases on drowning information, and surveys.

The global WHO guide provides a broad bibliography. We summarize in Table 2 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of drowning — or child water safety. The exposure to the substance can be by ingestion, inhalation, injection or absorption. Although chronic exposition also represents concern for health, we herein refer to poisoning due to acute exposure.

Poisoning is the third leading cause of unintentional injury death in the European Region, as estimated by the WHO in [ 1 ]. Non-fatal poisonings are even more frequent and constitute an important cause of emergency admissions and long-lasting disability. The WHO European report on child injury classified their recommendations and key strategies to prevent poisoning as effective, promising, insufficient evidence, or ineffective [ 1 ]. Four key strategies were classified as effective: removing the toxic agent, passing and enforcing legislation requiring child-resistant packaging of medicines and poisons, packaging drugs in non-lethal quantities, and establishing poison control centres.

Locking away medicines and other toxic substances was considered promising. Four strategies presented insufficient evidence: teaching children to avoid poisonous substances, reducing the attractiveness of medications and poisonous products, and providing home safety education and safety equipment; and one was considered ineffective: clearly labelling toxic products. Once more, these key strategies are a combination of environmental and behaviour modification, that can be achieved through engineering, legislation and education.

Other sources and information can be found in the WHO website [ 48 ]. As mentioned for drowning, PrevInfad recommendations date from [ 42 ]. A Cochrane systematic review determined the effect of modifications to the home environment on the reduction of injuries due to environmental hazards [ 50 ].

The review authors included safety knowledge, possession, compliance with and use of safety equipment, and disaggregated data for children. We therefore report this review as a source of evidence for the corresponding interventions. We summarize in Table 3 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of poisoning in children.

Thermal injuries include house fires, contact burns from hot solids and scalds from hot liquids. Fires are a leading cause of death in children, while contact burns and scalds can cause considerable disfigurement and long-term disability. Children under five years of age are at the highest risk for hospital admissions due to thermal injuries. The WHO European report on child injury give recommendations for preventing thermal injuries, with a focus to the European region.

Smoke alarms, hot water heater temperature regulation, flame-retardant sleepwear, electrical safety, sprinklers, child-resistant lighters, fire-safe cigarettes, and banning the manufacture and sale of fireworks are strategies with proven or promising evidence of effectiveness. The references of such data can be found in the original document.

The review authors specified that these examples are from high-income countries. The document also includes burn prevention strategies that are promising. Nevertheless, they are mainly focused to low- and middle-income countries for example safer stoves and lamps, or acid-throwing and we therefore do not include them in the present summary. A NICE guidance document on prevention strategies for unintentional strategies recommend some actions to be taken for preventing thermal injuries in children [ 35 ].

The Cochrane systematic review that looked at the effect of modifications to the home environment on the reduction of injuries due to environmental hazards included some interventions related with thermal injuries [ 50 ]. We summarize in Table 4 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of thermal injuries in children. Falls occur frequently and children are especially vulnerable. While most of them are not serious, some can cause serious injury, disability and fatal outcome.

In young children, falls are the most common cause of fatal and serious head injuries [ 1 ]. One of the three NICE documents published in on prevention strategies for unintentional strategies recommend some actions to be taken for preventing falls in children [ 35 ].

We summarize in Table 5 the recommendations and sources of the evidence for prevention of falls in children. They are currently working on updating the document on home safety, which includes prevention of drowning, poisoning, thermal injuries and falls.

European report on child injury prevention [Internet]. Kendrick D. Unintentional injuries and their prevention. In: Emond A, editor. Health for all children. Oxford: Oxford University Press; — Burn prevention. Success Stories Lessons Learned. Geneva: World Health Organization; Google Scholar. World Health Organization. Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender people. Recommendations for a public health approach.

Geneva; [cited Oct 18]. Global status report on road safety [Internet]. United Nations. United Nations Road Safety Collaboration. Publications [Internet]. World Health Organization; Road traffic injuries publications and resources [Internet]. Violence and Injury Prevention.

World report on child injury prevention [Internet]. NICE guidance [Internet]. Working together to reduce the burden of home and leisure accidents in Europe [Internet]. Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion [Internet]. Review of literature on new evidence on road traffic injury risk factors and interventions [Internet].

Seat-belts and child restraints: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. London; [cited Oct 18]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Effectiveness of belt positioning booster seats: an updated assessment. Article Google Scholar.

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